Additional Diabetes Information:
It seems a little difficult as we will have to ensure enough nutrient and energy supply but also restrict carbohydrate and fat intake. Some dietary advice is provided as follows so as to offer a guidance for the diet in Diabetic Nephropathy sufferers.
1. Protein intake
Increasing protein in urine is a typical feature in the developing course of Diabetic Nephropathy. The proper amount differs in patients at different stages: at early stage diabetic nephropathy, protein intake can be restricted within 0.6-0.8g/kg. Therefore, if a patient is 65kg, the proper protein intake volume can be 39-52g.
As plant protein is hard to be absorbed by the body and can produce some wastes, patients should take more high-quality animal proteins, such as milk, egg white, fish and lean meat.
When the disease develops into end-stage, protein intake should be controlled more stricter. As rice and flour contains more plant proteins, they are always replaced by wheat starch for supplying energies.
While taking a low-protein diet, energy supply should be enough to preserve a normal physiological activity. Generally, energy intake can be 30 to 35 kilocalorie/kg. To keep balanced, foods rich in energies and low in proteins can be taken, including potatoes, lotus root starch, vermicelli, taro, sweet potatoes, yams, pumpkin and water chestnut flour.
3. Low-fat foods
End-stage diabetic nephropathy is often combined with lipid metabolic disorder, therefore, a low-fat diet should be obeyed.
4. Water intake
Controlling water intake becomes important when oliguria and anuria appears due to severely declined kidney filtration function. At this time, water intake volume per day should be 500 ml than daily urine output. In other cases, after vomiting or nausea, patients can take some more water.
5. Salt intake
To protect the kidneys and reduce its workload, diabetics should follow a low-salt diet. For those with water and sodium retention as well as high blood pressure, salt intake should be restricted more seriously so as to prevent the progression of complications. But for others with vomiting and nausea, more salt can be allowed.
If daily urine output is more than 1000ml and blood potassium is normal, there is no need to restrict potassium intake. However, for patients with advanced diabetic nephropathy, hyperkalemia may present and can possible induce cardiac arrhythmia. Therefore, high potassium foods should be restricted within 1500-2000mg. Low potassium foods can be taken, including apples, watermelon, grapes, pear and pineapples. High potassium foods should be restricted properly, including bananas, rape, spinach, peaches and tomatoes. Patients with low potassium can take more high-potassium foods.
7. Take enough vitamin and micro elements, especially vitamin B, vitamin C, calcium and iron, which are helpful for protecting our kidneys.